Glucosamine sulfate, Boswellia und Curcumin
• 240 capsules / 750 mg
• Pure Pharmaceutical Grade
Glucosamine Sulfate (sodium free, 65 mg calium) 500 mg
Boswellia standardized to > 70 % boswellic acids 125 mg
Curcumin standardized to > 95% curcuminoids 125 mg
Dosage: 1 capsule 3 times daily
Glucosamine is an amino sugar found throughout the body. It is made of glucose and the ammoniated glutamine combined by the glucosamine synthetase. Since the early 80's, research has shown that supplementation in glucosamine stimulates the generation of articular tissues: synovial fluids and cartilages. Durable relief is felt after only two weeks of treatment. (For more information, see the Glucosamine monograph.)
Tradition and research join together to create OsteoFlex. Its formula is based on an in-depth study of herbs. Research has confirmed their effectiveness in the relief of inflammation and other symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatism. All the ingredients work in synergy to help relieve symptoms and reduce inflammation. Its effect is both very potent and very mild.
Curcumine from Curcuma longa and the gum resin of Boswellia serrata, which were demonstrated to act as antiinflammatories in in vivo animal models, were studied in a set of in vitro experiments in order to elucidate the mechanism of their beneficial effects.
Curcumine inhibited the 5-lipoxygenase activity in rat peritoneal neutrophils as well as the 12-lipoxygenase and the cyclooxygenase activities in human platelets. In a cell free peroxidation system curcumine exerted strong antioxidative activity. Thus, its effects on the dioxygenases are probably due to its reducing capacity. Boswellic acids were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and identified as the active principles. Boswellic acids inhibited the leukotriene synthesis via 5-lipoxygenase, but did not affect the 12-lipoxygenase and the cyclooxygenase activities. Additionally, boswellic acids did not impair the peroxidation of arachidonic acid by iron and ascorbate. The data suggest that boswellic acids are specific, non-redox inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis either interacting directly with 5-lipoxygenase or blocking its translocation.
Boswellia serrata is a moderate to large branching tree found in India, Northern Africa, and the Middle East. Strips of bark are peeled away, yielding a gummy oleo-resin which contains oils, terpenoids, and gum. Up to 16 percent of the resin is essential oil, the majority being alpha thujene and p-cymene. Four pentacyclic triterpene acids are also present, with ß-Boswellic acid being the major constituent. Extracts of this gummy exudate have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an anti-arthritic. These gum resins are also known as guggals. S. Nityanand et al showed the guggal of Commiphora mukul to be an effective hypolipidemic agent, but it does not have the anti-inflammatory action of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata.
Mechanism of Action:
Studies performed in India showed ingestion of a defatted alcoholic extract of Boswellia decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and migration, decreased primary antibody synthesis, and caused almost total inhibition of the classical complement pathway. In an in vitro study of the effects of ß-Boswellic acid on the complement system, the extract demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect on both the classical and alternate complement systems.
In vitro testing revealed Boswellia specifically, and in a dose-dependent manner, blocks the synthesis of pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase products, including 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which cause bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis, and increased vascular permeability. Other anti-inflammatory plant constituents, such as quercetin, also block this enzyme, but
they do so in a more general fashion, as an antioxidant; whereas, Boswellia seems to be a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase. Boswellia has also been observed to inhibit human leukocyte elastase (HLE), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. HLE also stimulates mucus secretion and thus may play a role in cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
It is known that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause a disruption of glycosaminoglycan synthesis which can accelerate the articular damage in arthritic conditions. A recent in vivo study examined Boswellia extract and ketoprofen for their effects on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Boswellia significantly reduced the degradation of glycosaminoglycans compared to controls, whereas ketoprofen caused a reduction in total tissue glycosaminoglycan content.
Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)
Turmeric is a spice from Asia, in the ginger family. It is mainly used in curries and as a yellow coloring agent in food. The active ingredients are curcuminoïds, mostly curcumin (diferuloylmethane). A staple of ayurvedic medicine for inflammation and osteoarthritis, it has been used for thousands of years. The anti-inflammatory property may be due to its effect on the eïcosanoïd biosynthesis and the arachidonic acid pathway enzymes. In studies on AIDS, curcuminoïds have shown results as anti-infectious and anti viral (HIV-1 integrase inhibition)agents. In another study, turmeric reduced the number and size of tumors as a chemopreventive agent. Turmeric's main effect is its antioxidation property, up to 5 times more potent than vitamin E. It also increases stomach's mucus secretion.
The following excerpt is from Turmeric and the Healing Curcuminoids
(Keats Publishing, Inc.) by Muhammed Majeed, Ph.D., Vladimir Badmaev, M.D., Ph.D., et al.
"The need for antioxidants, like curcuminoids, to stop free radical damage is well recognized. This can be accomplished by either minimizing or preventing the oxidants' initial formation, or by neutralizing the existing free radicals in the body. As we will learn in this and subsequent sections, curcuminoids, unlike many antioxidants, are capable of both functions, i.e., prevention of free radical formation and intervention to neutralize existing free radicals….
Inflammation in the body, as is encountered in the course of certain diseases (e.g., arthritis), infection or wound healing, is nothing more than the outcome of the defense reaction of the body producing oxidants that cause collateral damage to tissues and organs, which in turn results in inflammation. Moderate inflammation is necessary for the healing process; continuous inflammation, however, leads to chronic conditions like arthritis and associated pain....
Steroidal drugs like cortisone, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as phenylbutazone and indomethacin, are used in clinical practice to subdue inflammation. However, many of these drugs have dangerous side effects. On the other hand, curcuminoids and other constituents of turmeric are known for their natural anti-inflammatory activity. In fact, turmeric is one of the oldest natural, anti-inflammatory drugs used in Ayervedic medicine....
Turmeric has also been evaluated as a treatment for inflammation associated with arthritis. Oral administration of curcumin at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram and sodium curcumin at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited formalin-induced arthritis in rats. In fact, curcumin was comparably effective to phenylbutazone in this application.  In another study, oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg of the volatile oil isolated from [turmeric] also decreased arthritis induced in rats.
The antirheumatic properties of curcuminoids were tested in double-blind trial in 49 patients who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. When curcumin was given at a dose of 1200 mg/day for five to six weeks, significant improvement was observed in all patients. There was an overall improvement in morning stiffness and physical endurance. Again, the therapeutic effects were comparable to those obtained with phenylbutazone.
Turmeric was also used to treat patients with chronic respiratory disorders, which resulted in significant relief in symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath…
Curcumin has a similar action to that of aspirin and aspirin-like anti-inflammatory agents. There is, however, an important advantage for curcumin over aspirin, since curcumin, unlike aspirin, selectively inhibits synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins but does not affect the synthesis of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is an important factor in preventing vascular thrombosis, and any drug that affects its synthesis, especially when used in large doses, may increase the risk of this dangerous condition. Curcumin may therefore be preferable for patients who are prone to vascular thrombosis and require anti-inflammatory and/or antiarthritic therapy."
1. Srimal, R.C., and Dhawan, B.N. (1985). "Pharmacological and Clinical Studies on Curcuma Longa," Hamdard Nat'l. Found. Monograph, New Delhi, India, Section 3B(ii).
2. Chandra, D., and Gupta, S.S. (1972). "Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritic Activity of Volatile Oil of C. Longa," Ind. J. Med. Res. 60:138.
3. Deodhar, S.D., et al. (1980). "Preliminary Studies on Anti-Rheumatic Activity of Curcumin," Ind. J. Med. Res. 71:632.
4. Jain, J.P., et al. (1979). "Clinical Trials of Haridra in Cases of Tamak Swasa and Kasa," J. Res. Indian. Med. Yoga and Homeo. 14:110.
5. Srivastava, V., et al. (1986). "Effect of Curcumin on Platelet Aggregation and Vascular Prostacyclin Synthesis," Arzneim. Forsch
All material and information presented by Nutrisana.com is intended to be used for educational purposes only. The statements made about products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (U.S.). They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any condition or disease. Please consult with your own physician or health care practitioner regarding the suggestions and recommendations made at Nutrisana.com.
Copyright © 1998-2009 Nutrisana International inc., all rights reserved